Friday, 22 November 2013

The Three Anaphorae in the Syriac Catholic Missal (1978)

The three Anaphorae (Eucharistic Prayers) in the Syriac Catholic Missal of 1978 include (in printed order):
  1. The Anaphora of the 12 Apostles (St Mor Luke the Evangelist)
  2. The Anaphora of the 12 Apostles
  3. The Anaphora of Mor Eustathius Bishop of Antioch
    The Third Anaphora - Mor Eustathius Bishop of Antioch
    According to the notes, the third Anaphora is simply taken from the 1922 Missal. This 1922 Missal included Latinisations, where the words of Institution for each Anaphora was in the Roman formula.

    The First Anaphora - 12 Apostles (St Mor Luke the Evangelist)
    The first Anaphora was previously published in the 1922 Missal by Ignatius Ephrem II Rahmani, however the version in the 1978 Missal is different. The version in the 1978 missal has been adapted from Anaphorae Syriacae by Fr Alfons Raes published in Rome in 1940. This publication contains the version of this Anaphora as it appears in the 10th century. However, it is not all good news. Some parts of the Anaphora have been modified (for the worse), the most notable is the removal of the petitions after the Epiclesis (from the third to the sixth petition).

    I have not found this Anaphora published in my Syriac Orthodox Resources, so I was unable to make a comparison.

    The Second Anaphora - 12 Apostles
    The second Anaphora has never been published by the Syriac Catholic Church and is from the 12th century as it appears in the publication by Fr Raes. There seems to be a few trivial changes here and there, most notably in the Words of Institution for the Blood rather than the priest saying This is my blood he says This is the chalice of my blood the justification listed was 1 Corinthians 11:20 and Luke 22:20. Nevertheless the prayers said by the Priest in this Anaphora seem to be the ones that closest resemble the original.

    I made a comparison between this Anaphora and the Syriac Orthodox version. It seems that indeed the word chalice has been added to the Syriac Catholic version. Another interesting difference seems to be the Epiclesis for the blood. Where the Syriac Orthodox version has
    And the mixture in this cup to the Blood +++ of Christ our God
    The Syriac Catholic Version has an additional word "ܕܝܠܗ" (his) after the word "ܕܡܐ" (Blood). So the meaning of the whole Epiclesis changes to:
    And the mixture in this cup to His Blood ++ of Christ our God
    Now the Syriac Catholic Missal does not state whether this word was added in the missal, so there is a discrepancy. Nevertheless I have two theories:
    1. That the word  "ܕܝܠܗ" was added (before the 12th century) and the Syriac Orthodox Church removed it to make it consistent with other Anaphorae.
    2. That the Syriac Catholic Church simply added it to the missal without mentioning anything in the notes. I would need to see Anaphorae Syriacae to double check this.

    It seems the result of this Missal is a case of a few steps back but a few more steps forward. I suspect the late Patriarch Ignatius Anthony Hayek could see the neo-Latinisations occurring in the Syriac Catholic world and wanted to put and end to it. Unfortunately the reality is that his Priests and Bishops refused to follow the instructions (blogged about previously) and now we are left with Liturgies which our late Patriarch feared.

    Please pray for the restoration of our traditions.

    Through the prayers of the Birth-Giver of God Maryam and Mor Ephrem. God Bless you all.

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